The Capitol Dome

2018 Dome 55.1

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12. The First System of coastal defenses, begun in 1794, was replaced by the Second System in 1807. The Third System was the final phase of construction of seacoast fortifications in the United States, which began in 1816 and continued to 1867. Subsequent systems were named after Secretaries of War, such as William C. Endicott and William H. Taft. After 1918, increased use of airpower and mobile heavy artillery made fortifications obsolete. During the Cold War, coastal defenses were replaced by missile defense and other forms of airpower. 13. The Dry Tortugas are a group of islands visited by Ponce de Leon in 1513 and named for the sea turtles the explorer found there. Located 67 miles from Key West in the Gulf of Mexico, Fort Jefferson was built on Garden Key starting in 1846 but was not garrisoned until 1861. Evacuated in 1874, it saw brief service in the Spanish-American War (1898) before falling into disrepair. In 1935 it was declared a national monument. In 1992 the islands and the fort were designated a national park. 14. Richard Hovenden Kern (1821–53) and his younger brother Edward (1823–1863) were Philadel- phia-born artists who documented military explora- tion of the American West by John C. Fremont, John M. Washington, and John Pope. Edward Kern was an official artist aboard the USS Vincennes on a voyage to the Pacific and East Asia in 1851–53, and to China and Japan aboard the USS Fenimore Cooper in 1859–60. While surveying a railroad route through Utah, Richard Kern, Captain John W. Gunnison, and six others were killed by Pahvant Indians in 1853. Edward Kern died of natural causes in Philadelphia ten years later. 15. Charles Eastman, aka Hakadah, aka Ohiye S'a (1858–1939), was a popular author and proponent of Indian rights. He was the fifth child of Winona (Nancy Mary) Eastman, aka Wakantakawin (1831–1858). His father, a Santee Dakota named Wak-anhdi Ota, aka Many Lightnings, had become a Christian and favored assimilation into Euro-American society. Ohiye S'a attended mission school, Beloit College, Knox College, and Dartmouth College before completing medical school at Boston University. He is also known to readers as the physician who in 1890 treated the survivors of the Wounded Knee Massacre. He was influential to such organizations as the Boy Scouts of America, the Campfire Girls, and the YMCA. Later in life he promoted Indian self-determination and free- dom over assimilation. image crediTs: Fig. 1. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [LC-DIG-cwpb-06905] Fig. 2. James Lancel McElhinney, West Point from Garrison's Landing, journal painting (3.5 x 10," aqueous media in watercolor sketchbook) from Hudson Highlands: North River Suite Volume One (New York, 2017). Fig. 3. West Point Museum Fig. 4. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 125th Anniversary Acquisition, promised gift of Charlene Sussel Fig. 5. Seth Eastman, bookplate engraving from Treatise on Topographical Drawing (New York, 1837). Fig. 6. Watercolor on paper, collection of the McNay Art Museum, gift of Robert L. B. Tobin in memory of Madeline and John W. Todd Fig. 7. Seth Eastman, "Ruins of Old Fort Mackinac, 1763", in Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information Respect- ing the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States (Philadelphia, 1851–1857). Fig. 8. Bookplate from the collection of the author Fig. 9. Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives Fig. 10. American Civil War Museum Fig. 11. Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives Fig. 12. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, [LC-DIG-ppmsca-35218] Fig. 13. Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives Fig. 14. Author Fig. 15. U.S. Senate Collection Fig. 16. U.S. Senate Collection Fig. 17. Private collection, Morristown, New Jersey Fig. 18. U.S. Senate Collection Fig. 19. Author Fig. 20. U.S. Senate Collection Fig. 21. Collection of the U.S. House of Representatives Fig. 22. U.S. Senate Collection 30 THE CAPITOL DOME

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