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22 | Bulletin vol. 34 no. 1 The concept of mentorship is nothing new; it has been discussed since the days of Greek mythology, most notably in Homer's epic poem, Odyssey. It has been reviewed (Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, & McKee, 1978) and formally studied (Kram, 1985) for over 40 years and has consistently been shown to be beneficial to both professional and personal development across a variety of disciplines, including business, research, and healthcare (Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz, & Lima, 2004; Underhill, 2006). Individuals that receive mentorship have been shown to have higher salaries, promotion rates, and job satisfaction across their career (Chao, Walz, & Gardner, 1992; Fagenson, 1989; Scandura, 1992; Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991). Moreover, Feldman and colleagues (2010) found that junior faculty members in an academic medical setting who had mentors endorsed greater satisfaction with work allocation and higher self-efficacy when compared to those without mentors. It is important to note that the mentor-mentee relationship is often mutually beneficial; research has shown that mentors endorse higher job satisfaction, career success, commitment to their institute, and a sense of personal satisfaction and fulfillment (Canter, Kessler, Odar, Aylward, & Roberts, 2011; Eby, Durley, Evans, & Ragins, 2006; Ghosh & Reio, 2013; Grima, Paillé, Mejia, & Prud'homme, 2014; Hilsabeck, 2018). Finding a mentor and developing the skillset needed to become a good mentor can be particularly challenging for early career neuropsychologists (ECNP). It is common for ECNPs to relocate for their first job, requiring them to leave the training setting in which they already had well-established mentors. Moreover, there is the increased likelihood of being placed in a mentor role for the very first time. Although the benefits of mentorship during this ambiguous time period of one's professional career are well- documented, more research is still needed on empirically-based educational and training for early career mentors, particularly when considering demographically diverse individuals and underrepresented minorities. Before diving in further, it is important to define what a mentor is, and then introduce and define the concept of a sponsor. Fundamentally, the difference can be summed up as the following: mentors advise, whereas sponsors advocate. A mentor could be anyone more experienced who is willing to provide advice, support, and guidance. A mentor supports their mentee through discussion about how to build skills and qualities that will help with career development. A sponsor is often a senior-level individual who directly promotes their protégé by using their clout for the benefit of networking, promotion, visibility, and advancement in the field. Lucas D. Driskell, Psy.D. Scott A. Sperling, Psy.D. Mentors and Sponsors How to Access One and How to Become One as an Early Career Neuropsychologist We would like to stress that having both, mentors and sponsors (and ideally multiple of each), is important for professional and personal development. First and foremost, it is very difficult to directly acquire a sponsor. The sponsor-protégé relationship is typically the result of a successful mentor-mentee relationship, during which trust, dependability, and admiration are naturally built over time. Sponsors place their name and reputation on the line when championing their protégés; as such, there must be a strong sense of confidence in the protégé. Another important factor to consider is that, some individuals are great mentors but not ideal sponsors. Some mentors function best behind the scene as opposed to being a public figure in the field. There are many excellent mentors that have a vast amount of knowledge to share, regardless of whether or not they possess clout. And lastly, mentorship can be time-limited and never progress to a sponsor-protégé relationship, and that is perfectly fine. A mentor- mentee relationship does not need a lifelong commitment, and often is most beneficial with targeted goals and purpose to the relationship. With the understanding that the mentor-mentee relationship naturally comes first, the next sections will primarily focus on obtaining mentorship. Finding a Mentor/Sponsor One of the key factors to establishing a successful mentor-mentee relationship is fit. Fit is how well one's experiences, interests, and personality match with their potential mentor. Hilsabeck (2018) recently completed an excellent survey study exploring, (1) the difference between mentoring and sponsoring within neuropsychology, and (2) what characteristics mentors look for in a mentee, and subsequently protégé. While we strongly recommended all readers go review the full article independently, we would like to highlight select findings below:

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