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10 July/August 2021 Tablets & Capsules The researchers concluded that porosity has a strong influ- ence on the ingredients' functionality. The material's porosity also affects its final solubility. In general, higher porosity enhances calcium solubilization. FCC showed a pore volume approximately three times that of the other samples. It was also characterized by the largest interparticle pore volume. These results are in line with the morphological char- acterizations, where FCC demonstrated larger porous structures with less agglomeration compared to the other calcium sources. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that FCC has a porous amorphous struc- ture that favors a spherical shape (Figure 1). As a result, the structure improved the solubility of this calcium salt, contributing to an increase in the amount of soluble cal- cium. This partially explains the bioaccessibility results compared to the other calcium salts studied. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability To compare the samples' bioaccessibility, the research- ers tested 300 milligrams of elemental calcium contained in the calcium salt (30 percent of the daily recommendation of 1,000 milligrams) in an in-vitro dynamic gastrointes- tinal digestion system. All parameters were selected to reproduce the gastrointestinal conditions of a healthy adult after eating a solid meal. Results showed a similar cal- cium bioaccessibility for CCT (76.44 ± 9.73%), CC (73.7 ± 8.18%), and FCC (74.4 ± 1.87%) and a lower value for tri-CP (46.07 ± 8.68%) (Figure 2). After simulating gastrointestinal digestion, the research- ers studied the calcium's intestinal absorption using a Caco-2 model that reproduces the conditions of intesti- nal cells at lab scale. These results suggest that the type of calcium salt may affect calcium bioavailability, since the uptake efficiency values varied (Figure 3). FCC was almost twice as biologically available as CC and CCT and generated a higher total intestinal uptake (5.68 ± 0.26%), compared to CC (3.93 ± 0.99%), CCT (3.41 ± 0.33%), and tri-CP (1.85 ± 0.34%). FCC's composition, structure, increased porosity, fewer agglomerates, and particle size all help improve calcium solubility in the intestine, which explains its similar bioaccessibility but higher bioavailabil- ity compared to the other calcium salts. Market potential Efficient calcium ingredients for food fortification and dietary supplements need to release as much elemental calcium as possible for absorption in the gut. In this study, an innovative calcium source combined with structural modifications achieved better bioavailability values than the other commercial calcium salts tested. Thanks to a pat- ented recrystallization process, FCC offers a new mineral composition and porous structure, which allows for faster access to gastric juices in the stomach. The accelerated dis- solution in acidic environments results in a quicker release of calcium ions, which are then ready to be absorbed into the bloodstream via the small intestine. The world's increasingly aging population will likely drive demand for calcium supplements and other forti- fied products. FCC is an adequate and proven ingredient for calcium fortification. Since it combines both high levels of elemental calcium and effective calcium uptake, only a small amount of FCC is needed to reach recom- mended daily intakes. This calcium form presents new opportunities for manufacturers looking for nutritious, effective, and easy-to-process ingredients that address health- related aging concerns—from bone health blends to vitamin and mineral mixes, rehydration powders, and sports nutrition products. T&C Reference 1. Nieto JA et al.: Improved in vitro bioavailability of a newly developed functionalized calcium carbonate salt as a food ingredient and its comparison with available com- mercial calcium salts. Food Chemistry. Volume 348. 30 June 2021. Lalit Sharma is innovation manager, food at Omya Interna- tional (, Laura Soriano Romaní, PhD, is R&D project manager at AINIA Centro Tecnológico. Figure 2 Calcium bioaccessibility of different calcium salts after in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion (n=2) Calcium bioaccessibility (%) 0 18 36 54 72 90 76.44 46.07 73.70 74.40 CCT Tri-CP CC FCC Figure 3 In vitro percentage of calcium uptake efficiency using Caco-2 cell model (n=3-4) Calcium uptake efficiency (%) 2 0 1 3 4 7 6 5 3.41 1.85 3.93 5.68 CCT Tri-CP CC FCC

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