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24 OctOber 2022 Inhalation Dry powder inhalers— More than 170 years of development; Where to next? A brief history of dry powder inhalers and considerations for their future development Mark J. Sanders, MBA a and Alexis Harper, MSc a Asmark Services The first 100 years e earliest reference to therapeutic dry powder inha- lation may also be the earliest reference to "engineered particles." It dates from 1849 when Chambers, work- ing in London, devised a method for creating parti- cles using silver nitrate and copper sulphate; loading 1 grain of silver nitrate to 2.5 grains of lycopodium pollen. 1 e insufflation was administered to the sub- ject via glass funnel, with an attendant dusting pow- der from a gum ball. e work was repeated in 1850, in Boston, US, by Cornell, who reported success in treating bronchitis and laryngitis. 2 In 1851, Warren, also working in Boston, described, and subsequently commercialized for $1 US, a glass inhaler to deliver a powder containing silver nitrate, copper sulphate and mercury nitrate. 3 Warren claimed that his inhaler was to deliver the powder to the throat and lungs but not in the mouth. At that time, ideas were shared locally through meet- ings and, internationally, via scientific publication. Methods were repeated and adjusted, leading to nascent product formulation and development tech- niques. Today, with a greater understanding of toxi- cology, we would be somewhat alarmed by the use of these agents in the lung. e emerging interest in powders for inhalation prompted Solis Cohen to devote a chapter to the subject in his book on inhalation. 4 He summa- rized the state-of-the-art of powder inhalation in 1867, including details of pathology experiments that proved inhaled particles progressed beyond the mouth and actually reached the lung (something that was not universally recognized at that time) and the work of different physicians, summarized below, which serves to illustrate the international inter- est in powder inhalation. is uncontrolled world of medical development enabled a number of emi- nent respiratory specialists to start developing their own approaches to dry powder inhalation. 4 rough the 1850s and 1860s, Trousseau (in Paris, France), for example, developed a glass inhaler; Burow (in Königsburg, Germany now Kaliningrad, Russia) adapted a steel pen (Figure 1); Cornell, Pserhofer Figure 1 Mid-19th century DPIs and use of "saccharum lactis" (see reference 14)

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