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Inhalation April 2020 31 January 10, 2020. https://www. jsp?cntn_id=299814&org=NS F&from=news. • Russell K. Monson, Barbro Winkler, Todd N. Rosenstiel, Katja Block, Juliane Merl- Pham, Steven H. Strauss, Kori Ault, Jason Maxfield, David J. P. Moore, Nicole A. Trahan, Amberly A. Neice, Ian Shi- ach, Greg A. Barron-Gafford, Peter Ibsen, Joel T. McCorkel, Jörg Bernhardt, Joerg-Peter Schnitzler. High productivity in hybrid-poplar plantations without isoprene emission to the atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci- ences, 2020. 201912327 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912327117. e researchers believe their find- ings also clarified isoprene's adap- tive role in natural forests, where protection that enhances survival during mid-season climate stress is likely more important than pro- cesses that promote growth early in the season. Reasons for optimism "e fact that cultivars of pop- lar can be produced in a way that ameliorates atmospheric im- pacts without significantly reduc- ing biomass production gives us a lot of optimism," Monson added. "We're striving toward greater en- vironmental sustainability while developing plantation- scale bio- mass sources that can serve as fos- sil fuel alternatives." Study funding e National Science Foundation, the German Ministry of Educa- tion and Research, Portland Gen- eral Electric, the US Department of Agriculture, Portland State University, Oregon State Univer- sity and the state of Arizona sup- ported the research. References Content for this article was based on and excerpted from: • Poplar genetically modified not to harm air quality grow as well as non-modified trees, Science News, January 6, 2020. https:// 2020/01/200106222503.htm. • Poplars genetically modified not to harm air quality grow as well as non-modified trees, Ore- gon State University, January 6, 2020. https://today.oregonstate. edu/news/poplars- genetically- modified-not-harm-air-quality- grow-well-non-modified-trees. • Genetic modification of pop- lar trees saves air quality, Na- tional Science Foundation, "You could do the same thing through conventional breed- ing. It might be a nightmare for a breeder…but it could be done," said study coauthor Steven Strauss, a distinguished professor of forest biotechnology at Oregon State University. "New technologies… that allow for precise DNA editing at specific stretches of the genetic code should work even better." Surprising results e trees whose isoprene produc- tion was genetically suppressed "did not suffer ill effects in terms of photosynthesis or 'biomass pro- duction.'" ey produced cellu- lose, (used in biofuel production) and grew as well as trees that were not modified. Because isoprene has a protective effect in stressful cli- mates, like the extremely heat in Arizona, the results were surprising. Corresponding author Russell Monson, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at e University of Arizona explained, "e suppression of isoprene pro- duction in the leaves has triggered alternative signaling pathways that appear to compensate for the loss of stress tolerance due to isoprene. e trees exhibited a clever re- sponse that allowed them to work around the loss of isoprene and ar- rive at the same outcome, effec- tively tolerating high temperature and drought stress." In addition, the researchers found that trees were able to adjust to the loss of isoprene because most plan- tation growth takes place during cooler and wetter times of the year. "For this species, the natural sea- sonal cycle of growth works in favor of high biomass production when the beneficial effects of isoprene are needed least," said Monson. Back Page continued from page 32 advertiser index A Astech 7 C Catalent Pharma Solutions Cover 2 Cliantha Research 13 Copley Scientific 3 E Experic 9 M Management Forum 30 Merxin Ltd. 8 MSP 1 P Presspart Manufacturing Ltd. 5 Proveris 26 R RDD 17 V Vectura Cover 4

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