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The industry organizations page of the Inhalation website provides descriptions and contact information for cross-industry organizations and groups that present educational conferences and workshops. 32 August 2022 Inhalation Climate change could cause longer, more intense allergy seasons ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA—"Al- lergy seasons are likely to become longer and grow more intense due to increasing temperatures caused by climate change," researchers at the University of Michigan found, in a study supported by the United States National Science Founda- tion (NSF). "By the end of this century, pollen emissions could begin 40 days earlier in the spring than they did between 1995 and 2014. Allergy sufferers could see the season last an additional 19 days before high pollen counts subside. In addition, the annual amount of pollen emitted each year could increase up to 200%." e NSF announced the results, which were published in Nature Commu- nications. The predictive model developed by the team examined 15 of the most common pollen types and how their production would be impacted by projected changes in temperatures and pre- cipitation. Climate data and socio- economic scenarios were combined and correlated to data from 1995 to 2014. en pollen emissions were predicted for the last two decades of the 21st century. e model- ing "could eventually allow for allergy season predictions targeted to different geographic regions," said senior author Allison Steiner. "We're hoping to include our pol- len emissions model in a national air quality forecasting system to provide improved and climate- sensitive forecasts to the public." CALENDAR Please visit the industry organi- zations page of the Inhalation website to find descriptions and contact information for cross- industry organizations and groups that present educational confer- ences and workshops. industry-organizations providing focused mentoring and funding support for new inves- tigators, opportunities for mul- tidisciplinary and collaborative research, and training in labora- tory and clinical settings. e total funding in the first year is approx- imately $4.3 million. Awards have been made to Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio; Johns Hopkins University, Balti- more; Emory University, Atlanta and e University of Washing- ton School of Medicine, Seat- tle. NIAID stated that alleviating the global burden of TB through research to discover or improve diagnostics, therapeutics and vac- cines is a top NIAID priority. Free school meals: Allergy UK requests funding include children with allergies SIDCUP, UNITED KING- DOM—According to Allergy UK, the United Kingdom Department for Education has announced an additional £18 million for funding free school meals for infant school pupils. In conjunction, the Govern- ment pledged continued support for the Holiday Activities and Food Programme. In addition, Educa- tion Secretary Nadhim Zahawi, MP encouraged supermarkets and sport organizations to support the holi- day program, which provides food and activities to support disadvan- taged children. In response, Carla Jones, CEO, Allergy UK welcomed the additional funding. However, she explained that Allergy UK is aware that "there are still schools whose meal provision does not include 'free from' foods" that offer alternatives for children who have allergies. She also noted that "free from foods are more expen- sive and therefore those with lower incomes will feel the squeeze on this even more." erefore, Allergy UK is "calling on the Government to ensure that children who suffer from food allergies are factored into this new funding. ey too have a right to access the same healthy and nutritious lunches as their peers." RESPIRATORY MEDICINE NEWS continued from page 8 throat and lungs and remained active for three days. e intra- muscular vaccine remained in place, generating a slow immune response only to the lung region and blood. • Broad protection: e nasal vac- cine quickly generated a variety of immune responses, including antibodies A and G. e mus- cular vaccine only generated type G antibodies, mainly in the lungs. Both vaccines also gener- ated white blood cells (T cells), although in significantly higher levels with the nasal vaccine. • Rapid protection: Nasal vac- cination either prevented or accelerated SARS-CoV-2 elim- ination in nasal passages and lungs as early as two days after viral exposure. Muscular vacci- nation was less effective clear- ing virus from the respiratory tract over several days and did not protect nasal passages. Both the nasal and muscular vac- cines maintained neutralizing levels of antibodies for more than six months, although neutralizing the Beta and Omicron variants to a lesser extent. Potency waned at a rate of approximately 20% per month, consistent with observations for mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. e study did not explore the vaccine's ability to halt virus transmission. NIAID establishes four Tuberculosis Research Advancement Centers ROCKVILLE, MARYLAND— e United States National Insti- tute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced it is awarding five-year grants to establish Tuber- culosis Research Advancement Centers (TRACs) at four insti- tutions. e centers will support development of a next generation of tuberculosis (TB) researchers by

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